Horse & Pony Encyclopedia (Jc)

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Indeed, long lists of fallacies appear in logic textbooks of both Buddhists and Hindus, including a majority of those known to the Aristotelian tradition and modern textbooks of critical reasoning. The basic mechanisms posited by behavior- ists—classical and operant conditioning—involved the evocation, shaping and reinforcement of patterns of behavior. Natural philosophy is about what happens for the most part, assuming the common course of nature. Given the large num- ber of degrees of freedom entailed, the maxent distribu- tion will be enormously peaked.

Cartoon Coloring Book

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Like other indexicals, demonstratives can be used to refer to different objects on different occasions. Created spirits are responsible for only a small part of the movement in the world, and therefore God, the infinite spirit, must be its prime source. “And so natural philosophy either presupposes the knowledge of God or borrows it from some superior science” (De Motu, §34). See al-Ghazali, Muhammad Algebra abstract, 5:459, 9:369 analogy in, 8:785 arithmetical, 5:460 Boolean definition of, 5:535 diagrams in, 5:561–563 Jevons’s machine and, 5:565 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY lattice diagram for, 5:563 logical diagrams of, 5:563 Venn diagrams and, 5:561 Cantor on, 5:463 Cauchy on, 5:459–460 cylindric, Tarski on, 9:370–372 De Morgan on, 5:461 Dedekind on, 2:500, 8:836 deductive reasoning in, 6:223 Descartes on, 4:56 equations in, logic of, 1:660 Gergonne on, 5:461 Grassmann on, 5:461 Heyting, 4:740 for intuitionistic logic, 4:740 Kant on, 5:15 language in, 8:785 laws of, 5:450 of logic and computing machines, 2:400 definition of, 5:533 Leibniz and, 5:443 Schröder on, 5:462 logic and, 5:449–450, 5:459 Mill (John Stuart) on, 6:223 Peacock on, 5:459–460 propositional, in illative combinatory logic, 2:339 Schröder on, 5:462, 5:535 of signs, Condillac on, 2:423 symbolic, 5:460 of syntax, in formal expressions in compositionality, 2:371 Tarski on, 5:480, 9:367, 9:370–372 von Neumann, 2:343 Whitehead on, 5:461–462, 9:747 See also Mathematics Algeria, Sufism in, 9:310 al-Ghazali, Ahmad, 1:117–118 al-Ghazali, Muhammad, 1:118–120 and antirationalism, 4:581 attack on philosophy, 4:758, 9:304–305 Averroes and, 1:422, 2:114 on causality, 1:118–119, 1:426, 6:558 comparison to Crescas, 2:593 on creation, 3:361 on God’s omniscience, 3:23, 3:320 in Islamic philosophy, 4:758 on Neoplatonism, 6:558 on skepticism, 9:50 on Sufism, 9:304 Algorithm(s) in combinatory logic, 2:336 in computability theory, 2:372–375, 2:388–389 2nd edition • 189 index Algorithm(s), continued definition of, 5:533 Deutsch-Jozsa, 8:200–201 genetic, 1:348 Grover’s, 2:408 Markov, 2:504–505 quantum, 2:408 Algorithmic construction, of continua, 2:502–504 Algorithmic definition, of deduction, 2:254 Algorithmic quantification, of language, 5:509 al-Hallaj, Mansur, 9:303 al-Harizi, Maimonides and, 5:653 Alhazen, and Bacon (Roger), 1:453 Al-Hidaja ila Faraid al-Qulub Bahya (Guide to the duties of the heart) (Bahya), 1:457 Alice in Wonderland (Carroll), 2:51 Alien (film), 7:385 Alienation, 1:120–127 Adorno and, 1:26 alterity and, 1:133 art and, 8:629 contemporary interpretations of, 1:121–122 of creator and created, 1:560 critique and, 5:731 definitions of, 1:122 elimination of, 1:125 existential angst and, 1:763 forms of, 1:122–123 from God, 1:762 of God from himself, 8:621 Hegel on, 1:120–121, 4:263 history of, 1:120–121 of Kafka’s life, 5:5 of labor, 2:363, 5:731, 7:544 Mamardashvili on, 5:679 Marx on, 2:363, 5:731, 7:544 overcoming, 5:731, 8:629 property and, 8:70 Sartre on, 8:609 self, 1:123–125 of serial individuals and collectives, 8:609 social wealth and, 2:362 Aliotta, Antonio, 1:1, 1:127–128 al-Isharat wa al-Tanbihat (“The Directives and Remarks”) (Avicenna), 1:432 Alison, Archibald, 1:128–129 on aesthetic experience, 1:303 on taste, 1:52, 4:65 al-Jabiri, #Abd, 1:129–130 al-Khunaji, 5:419 al-Kindi, Abu-Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq, 1:130–131, 3:687 on analogy, 1:139 and Bacon (Roger), 1:453 on immortality, 4:618, 4:619 on intellection, 4:755 in Islamic philosophy, 4:755 on logic, 5:418 on predestination, 3:23 Pythagoreanism and, 8:188 al-Kwarizmi, Muhammed ibn Musa, 2:399 Allais, Maurice, on decision theory, 2:659–660 Allegorical method Bernard of Tours on, 1:592 Blount on, 1:619 Boehme on, 1:623 Allegory Benjamin on, 1:545–546 in Bible, 1:47, 9:844–845 nature as, 1:48 Philo’s use of, 7:309 on prejudice, 9:8–9 of Prometheus, 9:9 vs. symbol, 1:55 Allen, Colin, in ethnology, 1:202 Allen, Ethan, 2:690 “Allgemeine Deduktion des dynamischen Prozesses” (Schelling), 8:619 Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (Schlick), 8:638 Allgemeine Gottesgelehrtheit aller gläubigen Christen und Rechtschaffenen Theologen, Die (Spener), 7:576 Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände (Oken), 7:11 Allgemeine Pädagogik aus dem Zweck der Erziehung Abgeleitet (Herbart), 1:234 Allgemeine Psychiatrie (Jaspers), 3:507 Allgemeine Psychologie nack kritischer Methode (General psychology according to a critical method) (Natorp), 6:490, 6:543 Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen künste (General theory of the fine arts) (Sulzer), 9:324 Allgemeine Theorie des Denkens und Empfindens (General theory of thinking and feeling) (Eberhard), 3:161 Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, 5:203 Allocation, medical ethics and, 6:96–97 Allographic vs. autographic art, 1:317 Allport, Gordon, 9:260 All-Unity metaphysics, 3:669, 5:43 Almagest (Ptolemy), 2:534 al-Ma’mun, 4:754 Almeder, Robert, 7:116 al-Mióri, Dhü#l-Nün, 9:302 al-Muhasibi, al-Harith, 9:302 Al-Muqaddimah (The prolegomena) (Ibn Khaldun), 4:547 al-Nahawandi, Benjamin, 5:4 Alpern, Kenneth, on engineering ethics, 3:240 Alpetragius, 8:703 al-Qaeda, 9:397–398 al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine) (Avicenna), 1:432 al-Qazwini al-katibi, 5:419–420 Alquié, Ferdinand, students of, 2:693 al-Sadiq, Abu Ja’far, 9:301 Alsted, Johann Heinrich, 5:252 Alston, William, 1:132–133 on belief, 3:322, 7:482 on conditions of knowledge, 3:272 on emotions, 3:198 on epistemic circularity, 3:279–280 experientialism and, 3:322–323 on God not having beliefs, 3:696 on mysticism, 6:462 on perception, 7:193 on religious experience, 7:482, 8:402 on religious language, 8:417–418 on Rowe’s argument against existence of God, 9:408 al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din Yahya.

Hamlyn All Colour World Encyclopaedia

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His so-called Apology of Socrates is an unconvincing foot- note to Plato’s; but later he compiled his extensive and valuable Memorabilia (Recollections of Socrates) the work that has given Xenophon, not himself a philoso- pher, considerable importance to all post-Socratic philosophers. Roughly speaking, the Euler-Lagrange “principle of least action” states that the time integral of the system’s total kinetic energy is “stationary” along the actual path as compared to all sufficiently close possible paths.

Transport (Illustrated Encyclopedia)

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But over time there have been many others. In formal philosophy, as in formal conceptual analysis generally, there is a constant interplay between intuition and formalism. Thus it is said that Descartes proposed a dual- ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition • 21 ONTOLOGY ist ontology, or that there were no gods in d’Holbach’s ontology. Peirce’s essay originally appeared in Popular Science Monthly in 1878.

Stink-o-pedia: Volume 2 More Stink-y Stuff from A to Z

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In the wake of Petrarch’s discovery of Cicero’s letters to Atticus and Pro Archia, Salutati turned up a copy of his familiar letters while a humanist of the next generation, Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459), found more unknown speeches of Cicero. The best indication of what Hume had in mind by “force and vivacity” is his subsequent equation of it with belief in the real existence of a content present to one in sensation, reflexion, or thought, all perceptions.

Reference 5+: Children's Picture Encyclopedia

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In the Hippolytus and the Bacchae he vividly presents conflicts between Aphrodite and Artemis and between Dionysus and the forces of order and restraint. In Plato’s Lysis, edited by Terry Penner and Christopher Rowe. According to Kant we gain knowledge as we improve and test our theories. Keith Campbell (2005) Morality is another problematic area for naturalism. Consequently, debates over the nature, and status, of special sciences are understandably vigorous, though unfortunately they are also especially challenging because of the wide range of issues they incorporate, the often technical formulations of positions, and the implicit nature of many of their commitments.

Ultimate Body-Pedia: An Amazing Inside-Out Tour of the Human

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Being itself, the most abstract of all, amounts to the same as nothing. She published occasional essays and read much. He seems to have had a considerable knowledge of Christian theology, even adopting for his own purposes certain scholastic doctrines. Human reality, which history is about, is the temporal flow of experiences and actions that engage persons in their social context. But I have not been reasoned out of the basic desire. In virtue of what is it true that he mowed his lawn for this reason, and not the other, if not that this reason—or his having this reason or what realizes either this reason or his having it—and not the other, played a suitable causal role in his mowing his lawn?

Blackbirch Visual Encyclopedias - Natural Science

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Mili c Capek (1967) richard of mediavilla (d. c. 1300) Richard of Mediavilla, or Richard of Middleton, doctor solidus, was a Franciscan philosopher, theologian, and canon lawyer. Thus according to Helm, the more evidence one has that God exists, the greater degree of trust is appropriate. Philosophy is an excellent thing in its own place, but if philosophical categories are transferred into theology, the result can only be confusion.

1001 Amazing Facts

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The person with theistic religious experience is assured that it is different. In 1939 he published Chelovek (Man), a philosophical poem written mainly between 1915 and 1919. K. “Probabilities of Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities.” Philosophical Review 85 (1976): 297–315. In his doctoral dissertation he had already separated thermodynamic irreversibility from mechanical processes and had interpreted Rudolf Clausius’s entropy as its measure.

Crazy World Records (Madcap Pounders)

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The last work he published was a comprehensive system of philosophy conceived in his lifetime. Caroti ed. (München: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1996); Quaestiones super Physicam, S. Since at least the fourteenth century, the expression “positive law” has been used to refer to laws laid down or made by human beings in contrast to natural or divine law, which is regarded as something discovered and not made by man. K.: Cambridge University Press, 2006) cites a range of unpublished sources.